However, in five states, different methods are used.
The next-largest party is known as the minority party. Article 1, Section 3, provides that the president has the power to convene Congress on extraordinary occasions at his discretion.. Each senator chooses a desk based on seniority within the party. In the vice president's absence, the president pro tempore, who is traditionally the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. Left Valve. Fifteen senators have been expelled in the Senate's history: William Blount, for treason, in 1797, and fourteen in 1861 and 1862 for supporting the Confederate secession. As a result, four senators who failed to meet the age requirement were nevertheless admitted to the Senate: Henry Clay (aged 29 in 1806), John Jordan Crittenden (aged 29 in 1817), Armistead Thomson Mason (aged 28 in 1816), and John Eaton (aged 28 in 1818).
However, the Constitution's Origination Clause provides that "All bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives". In 45 states, a primary election is held first for the Republican and Democratic parties (and a select few third parties, depending on the state) with the general election following a few months later.
However, courts have upheld the validity of such agreements.. A senator, however, may challenge the presiding officer's assessment and request a recorded vote. The Constitution provides that the president may only "make Treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur" in order to benefit from the Senate's advice and consent and give each state an equal vote in the process. The lower tier of the dais is used by clerks and other officials. Congress has passed laws authorizing the president to conclude executive agreements without action by the Senate.
Forty-eight of the desks date back to 1819, when the Senate chamber was reconstructed after the original contents were destroyed in the 1812 Burning of Washington.  The second-highest member, the spokesperson on the committee for the minority party, is known in most cases as the ranking member. Under Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, a large number of government appointments are subject to potential confirmation; however, Congress has passed legislation to authorize the appointment of many officials without the Senate's consent (usually, confirmation requirements are reserved for those officials with the most significant final decision-making authority). Under the Twelfth Amendment, the Senate has the power to elect the vice president if no vice presidential candidate receives a majority of votes in the Electoral College. As it is for federal employees, congressional retirement is funded through taxes and the participants' contributions.  As a result, it is uncertain whether an Alaska governor may appoint an interim senator to serve until a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The Constitution provides several unique functions for the Senate that form its ability to "check and balance" the powers of other elements of the Federal Government. Seats in the House of Representatives are approximately proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation.  Like the vice president, the president pro tempore does not normally preside over the Senate, but typically delegates the responsibility of presiding to a majority-party senator who presides over the Senate, usually in blocks of one hour on a rotating basis. This last role was particularly important in mid-century, when floor amendments were thought not to be collegial. In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for vice president, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Each standing committee may consider, amend, and report bills that fall under its jurisdiction. They were designed and modeled by the American sculptor Thomas Crawford in Rome in 1855–1857. Senators who were not in the chamber when their name was called may still cast a vote so long as the voting remains open. In practice, however, the choice of members is made by the political parties. Other joint committees serve to make advisory reports; for example, there exists a Joint Committee on Taxation. After Crawford's death in 1857, William H. Rinehart was commissioned to complete the work and the models were shipped to America in 1864. The approval of both houses is required for any bill, including a revenue bill, to become law. The Senate is widely considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, and statewide constituencies, which historically led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere.
All speeches must be addressed to the presiding officer, who is addressed as "Mr. President" or "Madam President", and not to another member; other Members must be referred to in the third person.
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